Getting to know the Amazon River, the second largest river in the world

Aerial photo of the Amazon River

Interesting facts about the Amazon River

Amazon River It is the second largest river in the world and one of the new seven wonders of the world that passes through the Amazon rainforest and has the richest biological reserve in the world.

Amazon is known as one of the most mysterious places in the world and almost everyone has heard the name of the Amazon River, this river is one of the largest rivers in the world that passes through the Amazon forest.

It can be said that a trip to the Amazon forest and river is considered a luxury and expensive trip for adventurous and risk-taking tourists.

The Amazon River is one of the new seven wonders of the world. The length of the Amazon River is equivalent to the distance from New York City to Rome.

The source of the Amazon River, plant species of the Amazon River, the Amazon River

Satellite photo of the Amazon River

General information about the Amazon River

The Amazon River is located in South America and is the most watery river in the world.

The Amazon River, with a length of 6575 meters, is the second longest river in the world after the Nile River.

The largest catchment area of ​​Denba with an area of ​​7050000 square meters belongs to this river.

The Amazon River originates from the Andes and passes through the countries of Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Guaraní, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia and Suriname and flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Of course, 60% of the Amazon area is in Brazil.

The nature and animals of the Amazon region are very vast and diverse, about 1294 birds, 378 reptiles and 472 amphibians and 3000 fish have been identified in this region.

The water temperature of the Amazon River in Peru is so high that it can boil small creatures.

The most important tourist attraction of the Amazon River is the pink dolphins, which are known as Boto in the local language.

There are only a few cable-stayed bridges over the Amazon River, and no bridge structures have been built over the Amazon.

The amount of discharge of water from the Amazon River at the mouth of the river is 4 times that of the Congo and more than 10 times that of the Mississippi River, and up to a distance of 160 km, it dilutes the salinity of the ocean water.

More than two-thirds of the Amazon river basin is covered with rainforests, which are divided into dry forests and savannas in the northern and southern margins, and the forests of the Andes mountains in the west.

The Amazon region is the world’s largest biological reserve.

Seasonal fluctuations of the Amazon river sometimes reach up to 15 meters.

Under the Amazon River, another river flows 4 kilometers underground, which is thought to be 4 times the width of the Amazon River.

15 million years ago, before the formation of the Andes Mountains, this river flowed in the direction shown today and flowed to the shores of the Pacific Ocean in South America. It opened in the opposite direction towards the Atlantic Ocean.

In 2016, researchers discovered an entire network of coral reefs in the Amazon River Delta.

The Amazon River supplies 20% of the ocean’s fresh water supply.

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Various plant species of the Amazon River

History of the Amazon River

The name of the Amazon river and forest was chosen by the Spanish explorer Francisco de Oriana.

When Oriana first entered the dense forests of this region, she encountered warrior women from the Tapoyas tribe, who reminded her of the Amazon warrior women in Greek history.

Therefore, the word Amazon from the Scythian language, which means “all women", was placed on this river. It has been said that the background of the Tapos tribe actually goes back to Central Asia and they are of Iranian origin. In this tribe, women participated in wars like men.

The source of the Amazon River

In the old days, it was thought that the Empurimac River in Nevado Misami is the source of the Amazon River, but studies conducted in 2014 showed that the Cordillera Romí Cruz and Mantaro rivers in Peru are the source of the Amazon River.

The Mantaro and Apurimec Rivers, along with a part of the Ocayali River branches that merge with the Manion River upstream of Iquitos in Peru, form the main stream of the Amazon River. This part of the Amazon River is known as the Solimoes Sediment, which meets the Rivergrove River upstream.

The Amazon River is classified as one of the shallow rivers, with a small channel with a width of 240 km and a depth of 60 meters, which has little turbulence. It is true that the Amazon River originates from the Andes Mountains, but the river’s path passes through flat lands that are not very high above the sea level, that’s why the speed of water movement in the river is low. The height of the Amazon River from the sea level decreases by about 40 meters at the end of the route.

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Amazon river pink dolphin

Amazon climate

Amazon has a hot, humid and rainy climate.

The length of day and night are equal in the equatorial region, but there is a significant temperature difference.

Amazonian nights are cold like winter in the region.

The average daytime temperature in Manaus city is around 32 degrees Celsius in September and 24 degrees Celsius in April, but the humidity is high and annoying throughout the year.

In the winter in the southern hemisphere, the polar air mass is directed towards the north of the Amazon and reduces the air temperature drastically.

Half of the rainfall in the Amazon region comes from the Atlantic Ocean and the other half comes from transpiration and evaporation of tropical forests and convective storms.

The annual rainfall in the lower part of the Amazon is between 1500-3000 milliliters.

Numerous rains usually occur in the eastern and northwestern margins of the river basin, but in the central part, we have a drought period from June to November. In 2005, a drought in this area and the lack of rain for 60 days led to the drying up of parts of the river and the death of millions of fish.

The discovery of various mines and the influx of humans into the Amazon region and deforestation have led to fluctuating river levels and periods of drought, although these periods are not enough to prevent the growth of plants, but they can cause fires to start and spread.

During the dry season, the width of the river reaches about 3 km in most places, but during the rainy season, the height of the river water increases up to 9 meters and its width reaches up to 48 km.

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Decorative fish of the Amazon River

Diverse plant species of the Amazon River

The Amazon River is known for the tropical rainforests or Selva that cover the river basin.

The variety of different and strange plant species around the Amazon is so great that it can be said that about 100 different tree species have grown in just one hectare, some of which have only been seen once.

The height of Amazon trees reaches 40-60 meters and the thick trunks of some trees are covered with mushrooms and lichen.

In addition to trees, various plant species can be seen in the Amazon region, including orchids, cactus, pineapples, ferns, and various mosses, which are connected by a network of climbing plants or lianas.

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Animal species of the Amazon River

Diverse species of animals in the Amazon River

Still, many species of creatures in the Amazon region are unknown.

More than 8000 species of insects have been identified in this area, some of which can transmit malaria and yellow fever diseases.

Hundreds of beautiful bird species with bright colors that are not similar anywhere in the world, including colorful parrots, macaws, hawks, eagles, woodpeckers, herons, etc. live in these forests.

Giant spiders, all kinds of scorpions and bees and thousands of butterflies live on these beaches.

So far, about 2,500 fish have been discovered in the Amazon River, but there are still many unknown species in this area. Most river fish are migratory.

The most dangerous fish in the Amazon River is the famous piranha, which can completely destroy a living being in a few minutes.

Some fish in the region are in danger of extinction due to the increase in global demand and overfishing.

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Amazon river fish

Economic resources on Amazon

Farmers around the Amazon usually cultivate rice, manioc, corn, jute, palm, cocoa, coffee and black pepper.

The development of pastures, cattle pastures and fields are important factors of deforestation in the region.

The wood of some species of Amazon trees is used to make flavoring and medicinal substances, but rubber tree Known as the rubber tree, it is one of the main reasons for the exploitation of the Amazon forests.

The exploitation of Amazonian mines has caused the greatest damage to the region’s ecosystem. The Amazon region has one of the richest iron ore deposits in the world. Other mines in this area include gold, copper, nickel, manganese, tin and bauxite. The smelting of iron ore and exploitation of mines required the clearing of thousands of hectares of Amazon forests, and on the other hand, the mercury used to extract gold caused river water pollution and the death of many river fish, which were the main source of food for the native people.

Compilation: bBitoteh Tourism Khash